=Group 5 Elements

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periodic-table.jpg


This group contains
  • two nonmetals: Nitrogen and Phosphorus
  • two metalloids: Arsenic and Antimony
  • one metal: Bismuth

Nitrogen (N)
  • Nitrogen exists as a stable molecule and it is the most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • The triple nitrogen-nitrogen bonds in N2 molecules make nitrogen gas very stable.
  • Dispersion forces between N2 molecules are very weak and nitrogen gas
  • Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas
  • Nitrogen has a melting point of −210°C ( 63K) (-346F)
  • Nitrogen has a boiling point of -196°C (77K) (-320.8F)
  • Atomic Structure of Nitrogen
    Atomic Structure of Nitrogen
    Atomic number:7
  • Atomic weight:14.006
  • Electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p3
        • A scottish chemist, Joseph Black,and his studet Daniel Rutherford discovered Nitrogen when experimenting with air to try to find out what elements it was composed of
        • By burning off O2 and CO2 from the air with Phosphorus, an element was discovered
        • It couldn't support a living organism or combustion like CO2 but unlike CO2, it was insoluable in alkali solutions and water. It was called "Noxious Air" and then Nitrogen
        • Liquid Nitrogen can cause severe frostbite but can also be useful in other ways. It is used to make ammonia, fertilizers and most explosives





Phosphorus (P)
  • Phosphorus occurs in various allotropes, the most common are:
  • is an essential component of living systems and is found in nervous tissue, bones and cell protoplasm
  • several allotropic forms including white (or yellow), red, and black (or violet)
  • Atomic number: 15
  • Atomic weight: 30.97
  • Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p3
  • Henning Brand discovered it in 1669 in Hamburg, Germany
  • Evaporated urine followed by a long process of heating it with sand, gases, oils condensed in water
  • called it "cold fire" because it glowed
  • Can also be made from bone
  • Greek word "Phosophoros" meaning "bringer of light" because of it's appearance
  • Highly toxic, burns skin but can be used to make matches and detergent

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Arsenic and Antimony
  • Are covalent network solids with high melting points
  • Arsenic is a silver-gray brittle metal that tarnishes when exposed to air.
  • It exists in two allotropic forms: black and yellow.
  • Arsenic has a melting point is 817°C (1,090K) (1,502F)
  • Arsenc has a boiling point is 613°C(886K) (1135F)
  • Antimony also occurs in two allotropic forms: black and yellow.
  • It is a silver-white solid
  • Antimony has a melting point of 630°C (903K) (1166F)
  • Arsenic has a boiling point of 1635°C (1908) (2975F)

Arsenic (As)
  • Atomic number:33
  • Atomic weight:74.92
  • Electron configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p3
  • Known since antiquity in it's sulfide compound
  • Greek word "arsenikos" meaning potent
  • Is toxic at 5 mg but can also be useful
  • Used to make wood preservatives, insecticides, LEDs and can be found in lead alloy for ammunition

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Antimony (Sb)
  • Atomic number:51
  • Atomic weight:121.76
  • Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
  • Can be dated back to Ancient Egyptian Time for cosmetics such as eyeliner.
  • Scarcely found alone, found usually in ore with Sulfur, Copper, Lead and Silver
  • Greek words "anti" and "mono" meaning "not alone"
  • Used to make finish on batteries because of it's smooth touch in an alloy.
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Bismuth (Bi)
  • Bismuth is the only metal in the group and it is the heaviest element that contains stable (non-radioactive) isotopes.
  • Bismuth is a typical silvery metal with an interesting reddish tinge to it.
  • Bismuth has a melting point of 271°C (544K) (519F)
  • Bismuth has a boiling point of 1560°C (1833K) (2840F)
  • Atomic number:83
  • Atomic weight: 208.98
  • Electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
  • Considered stable but radioactive
  • Slow rate of decay
  • Latin word "weissmuth" meaning "white substance" because of it's white oxide
  • Not toxic, found in medicines
  • Also used in cosmetics, fire detection and extinguishing, replacement for lead in bullets
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INTERESTING FACTS

Nitrogen

1. Nitrogen is 78% of the air you breathe.
2. When you come up to fast from a deep under sea dive you can get the "bends" which is nitrogen bubbles in your blood.
3. Can use it in liquid form to create supercondcutors.
4. Can be used to pressurize beer kegs, which gives the dispensed beer smoother taste and headier body.
5. When inhaled at high pressures nitrogen begins to act as an anesthetic.
6. A French chemist named nitrogen azote, meaning without life.

Phosphorus
1. Phosphorus is the second most common mineral in the body.
2. It is a structural component of all cells.
3. It is a part of the nucleic acids comprising the genetic code of cells.

Arsenic
1. In the Victorian era, arsenic was mixed with vinegar and chalk and eaten by women to improve the complexion of their faces, making their skin paler to show they did not work in the fields.

Antimony
1. It does not react with air or water and does not react with fluorine, chlorine or bromine.
2. At high temperatures, it will ignite and burn in air.

Bismuth
1. Bismuth in different languages:
Union flag icon
Union flag icon
Bismuth
French flag icon
French flag icon
Bismuth
German flag icon
German flag icon
Bismut
Dutch flag icon
Dutch flag icon
Bismut
Italian flag icon
Italian flag icon
Bismuto
Spanish flag icon
Spanish flag icon
Bismuto
Swedish flag icon
Swedish flag icon
Vismut
Portuguese flag icon
Portuguese flag icon
Bismuto

2. Bismuth is twice as abundant as gold in the Earth's crust. However, it is still a relatively rare element for it makes up only .2 parts per million of the Earth's crust.

Questions



1)Which element can cause frostbite but also be used to make ammonia?
a.Antimony
b.Bismuth
c.Nitrogen
d.Arsenic

2.)Which element has an atomic number of 33?
a. Arsenic
b. Oxygen
c. Bismuth
d. Antimony

3.)Which of the following are non metals?
a. Nitrogen & Phosphorus
b. Arsenic & Bismuth
c. Antimony
d.None of the above

4.)Which of the following group 5 elements are the heaviest?
a. Arsenic
b. Nitrogen
c. Bismuth
d.Antimony

5.)Which of the following statements are true?
a. Nitrogen is 78% of the air you breathe
b. Bismuth is a metalloid.
c. Arsenic is not toxic at 5 mg.
d. phosphorus was discovered by Barack Obama.

WORKS CITED:


"Antimony." hobart. hobart.com. Web. 27 Nov 2012.
<http://www.hobart.k12.in.us/ksms/PeriodicTable/antimony.htm>.

"Phosphorus Facts." Elyte Edge. Elyte Edge. Web. 27 Nov 2012.
<http://www.elyteedge.com/news/here-are-some-interesting-facts-about-phosphorus/>.


"Periodic Table of Elements." Washington. Washington.edu. Web. 27 Nov 2012.
<http://depts.washington.edu/chemcrs/bulkdisk/chem162C_spr06/handout_Lecture_19.pdf>.

"Group 5A — The Pnictogens." Parts of Periodic Table. angelo.edu. Web. 27 Nov 2012.
<http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/periodic/periodic_main5.htm>.

"Arsenic Elements Fact." Chemicool. Chemicool. Web. 27 Nov 2012.
<http://www.chemicool.com/elements/arsenic.html>.