GROUP FOUR ELEMENTS

By: Ben Anna and Rachel

The group four elements include Silicon, Carbon, Germanium, Tin, Lead, and Flerovium.



Silicon (Si)
Silicon is element number 14 on the periodic table, with an atomic weight of 28.09 grams per mole and a density of 2.33 grams per cubic centimeter. Silicon is the second most abundant element in our element’s crust. Amorphous silicon is a brown powder while crystalline silicon is the more commonly known lustrous gray color. In 1824 Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius first isolated amorphous silicon through melting potassium and potassium fluorosilicate and washing away the by-products. Later in 1854 French Chemist Henri Deville first produced crystalline silicon by electrolyzing sodium aluminum chloride and washing the aluminum away from the aluminum silicide product.
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A Silicon Chip Magnified
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Crystalline Silicon
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The Atomic Structure of Silicon
Silicon is a semimetal and a semiconductor. The name silicon comes from the latin word silex, meaning flint. The electron configuration for silicon is 1s2 2s2 2p2 3s2 3p2. Silicon only occurs naturally as silicon dioxide (sand) and silicates. Like water, silicon expands as it freezes. Silicon Dioxide is the main component for glass. Crystalline Silicon Dioxide, also known as quartz, is used in jewelry and time pieces such as watches. Perhaps silicon’s most important use is in computers and electronics as silicon chips. Silicon chips must contain ultrapure silicon, meaning it must contain only one non silicon atom for every billion silicon atoms.



CARBON (C)
Carbon is element number six on the periodic table, with an atomic weight of 12.01 grams per mold and a density of 2.2670 grams per cubic centimeter and the chemical symbol C. Carbon is one of the main elements of life; all living things are composed of some concentration of carbon. The word carbon comes from the latin word for charcoal, carbo. Organic chemistry is the study which is solely devoted to carbon. Carbon is one of the most frequently occurring elements in the universe. Over ten million carbon based compounds exist in the universe. The most common compounds of carbon are carbon dioxide, chloroform, benzene and acetic acid. The electron configuration of carbon is [He] 2s2 2p2.
"Carbon is element number six on the periodic table"
"Carbon is element number six on the periodic table"
There are three allotropic for
ms of carbon: external image 5eZ3wy-tQLe5Fjoat1CT58LudD9iZ9t38z00LBJQaNIWzppbyOkUHDZRka0tF40W_jCE5nnKoSXGiNQAOgVR9ZfGXl5ZQA4E7urQr3ftNhBUj7O4NbRYamorphous, graphite, and diamonds. Carbon is commonly found colored either black, or colorless. The glamorous form of carbon, diamond, regardless of size consists of only one molecule of carbon atoms. Amorphous carbon is a form of graphite, composed of crystals. Amorphous carbon can be obtained by heating carbonic-materials to temperatures ranging from 650-980o C, without enough Oxygen for it to burn completely.
A sample of Amorphous Carbon.
A sample of Amorphous Carbon.
Graphite is both naturally occurring as well as synthetically produced. Commercial graphite is produced by treating the remains of crude oil refinement, petroleum coke, in an oven without Oxygen. Graphite is one of the softest materials known to man. Layers of graphite are bonded together by Van der Waals forces.The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted isotope Carbon-12 as the basis for atomic weights in 1961. Carbon-14 is the isotope which is used to date items of the past. Compounds containing a combination of carbon and boron or silicon are among the hardest known to man.
Graphite is one of the softest materials known to man. It is so soft you can even write with it!
Graphite is one of the softest materials known to man. It is so soft you can even write with it!



GERMANIUM (Ge)


Germanium (Ge) is a semi metallic element in Group 14 with an atomic number of 32.
Germanium (Ge) is a semi metallic element in Group 14 with an atomic number of 32.
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Germanium (Ge) is element number 32 on the periodic table, with an atomic weight of 72.64 grams per mole and a density of 5.35 grams per cubic centimeter. The ground state electron configuration of Germanium happens to be [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. Mendeleev was able to predict the existence of Germanium in 1871. Mendeleev, using his first periodic table, deduced that its properties would be similar to that of silicon, another Group 14 element. Following Mendeleev’s deduction with his first periodic table, the actual Germanium element was first discovered in 1886. Clemens Alexander Winkler found this element in a mineral known as argyrodite. Since Clemens discovered Germanium in Germany, its name literally is originated from the latin word for German, Germania. Germanium happens to have a greyish white color, is crystalline, brittle, retains luster, and is classified as semi-metallic. Semi-metallic means that Germanium contains some of the properties of both metals and nonmetals. The biggest use of Germanium is as a semiconductor material. In addition to this, Germanium is used in microscope and camera lenses due to their index of dispersion and refraction being so high, important medicine that is not harmful to mammals and only bacteria, a catalyst, and an alloying agent.
Germanium is found in some medical tablets, and is used to eliminate harmful bacteria.
Germanium is found in some medical tablets, and is used to eliminate harmful bacteria.
There is usually no use in producing Germanium, seeing as it is available in many places, commercially. However, Germanium is able to be extracted from flue dust by also taking out zinc, as well as combining carbon or hydrogen with Germanium dioxide. In order to get the purest form of Germanium, hydrogen must react with GeCl4. FUN FACTS: 1. Germanium oxide, as well as Germanium, when put under an infrared light, are completely transparent.....SPOOKY! 2. The original name picked out for Germanium was Neptunium!
Germanium is lustrous and has a "greyish white color"
Germanium is lustrous and has a "greyish white color"


TIN (Sn)
Tin (Sn) has an atomic number of 50 and an atomic weight of 118.710.
Tin (Sn) has an atomic number of 50 and an atomic weight of 118.710.
Tin (Sn) is element number 50 on the periodic table, with an atomic mass of 118.710 grams per mole and a density of 7.28 grams per cubic centimeter. The ground state electron configuration for tin is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. Tin’s name is derived from the latin word “stannum” meaning, directly, tin. Tin tend to be a lustrous silvery grey to white color, is malleable, highly crystalline, moderately ductile, and is classified as a metallic element. Tin is usually too soft for most metal workers so they would mix it with copper to form bronze! Tin is also used to prevent corrosion by coating other metals. Important tin alloys include soft solder, fusible metal, type metal, pewter, Babbitt metal, bell metal, die casting, white metal, and phosphor bronze.
Tin is important to cats with food found in Tin Cans!
Tin is important to cats with food found in Tin Cans!
On the other-hand, there is usually no need to separate tin metal, because, just like other Group 14 elements, it is available commercially. One process, believed to have been the one used by ancient people to produce tin in the first place, was limiting SnO2 with burning coal. SnO2 is sometimes used to plate steel. Another way to find tin is in the mineral cassiterite. FUN FACT: Tin has an alchemy symbol because it has been used since ancient times.
The alchemy symbol for TIN (Sn).
The alchemy symbol for TIN (Sn).





Lead (Pb)
Lead is element number 82 on the periodic table, with an atomic weight of 207.2 grams per mole and a density of 11.34 grams per cubic centimeter. Lead has been used on earth for centuries and its origin is unknown. Lead is soft, ductile and malleable. Lead is found in nature in ores with copper, zinc, and sulfur. Its most often produced by melting Lead Sulfate. Lead appears as a bluish grey solid in room temperature. The symbol for lead Pb comes from its latin name Plumbum.
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A Lead Sample
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An Advertisement for the Dangers of Lead Poisoning
There are many uses for lead and lead compounds although it is poisonous. It was used for plumbing in the Roman aqueducts and it is theorized that the fall of the Roman empire can be attributed to the lead contamination of their drinking water. Lead was also often used in paints but has been removed due to contamination and environmental concerns. Today lead is used to shield radiation from x-rays and nuclear reactors. The lead alloy Solder consists of lead and tin and is melted to join two pieces of metal together. Lead nitrate is used to make fireworks. Lead is also corrosion resistant and used in batteries.



FLEROVIUM (Fl)
Flerovium is element number 114, with an atomic weight of 289. The symbol for Flerovium is Uuq. Flerovium is formerly known as Ununquadium. Flerovium is named after the founder of institute in which it was formed, Georgiy Flerov. The density of Flerovium is unknown. Flerovium is a radioactive element. It is assumed that, at room temperature, flerovium is a solid. Flerovium’s electron configuration is [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2. Flerovium was artificially synthesized by scientists in Dubna, Russia led by Ken Moody and Yuri Oganessian in 1998 when they fused calcium-48 with plutonium-244. Having bombarded these ions together, a single atom of flerovium-289 was formed, bearing a half-life of merely twenty-one seconds. As very few atoms of flerovium have been produced, and they only last for a brief period of time, not much is known about flerovium. There are no uses for flerovium aside from scientific research.

Works Cited



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<http://www.webelements.com/carbon/>.
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<__http://www.chemicool.com/elements/flerovium.html__>.
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Questions
1. Which Chemist first isolated amorphous silicon?
a. Wilhelm Roentgen
b. Henri Deville
c. Louis Pasteur
d. Jöns Jacob Berzelius

2. Which element has the greatest atomic weight?
a. Germanium
b. Flerovium
c. Tin
d. Lead

3.Which element was discovered when calcium-48 and plutonium-289 ions were bombarded together in a fusion reaction?
a) Lead (Pb)
b) Carbon (C)
c) Flerovium (Uuq)
d) Silicon (Si)

4.This element exists in the three allotropic forms: amorphous, graphite, and diamonds.
a) Tin (Sn)
b) Lead (Pb)
c) Germanium (Ge)
d) Carbon (C)

5.What is the name of the mineral that Clemens Alexander Winkler found the first recorded sample of Germanium in?
a)Armalcolite
b)Argyrodite
c)Germanite
d)Gersdorffite