GROUP II ELEMENTS- ALKALINE EARTH METALS-Laura, Jordan, Casey

Group II Elements:
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  • Beryllium
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Strontium
  • Barium
  • Radium

-The group 2A elements, (with the valence electron configuration ns2) are very reactive, losing their two valence electrons to form ionic compounds that contain M2+ cations. These elements are commonly called the alkaline earth metals because of the basicity of their oxides.

Alkaline_Earth_Metals.jpg


Properties
-All of the elements in Group II are metals, so they all have the properties of metals including luster, malleability, ductility and conductivity.
- Calcium, strontium, and barium react vigorously at 25 degrees celcius.
-The metals of group 2 are harder and denser then sodium and potassium, and have higher melting points. These properties are due largely to the presence of two valence electrons on each atom, which leads to stronger metallic bonding than occurs in group 1.
Trends
-Moving down the group, ionization energy and electronegativity decrease, while atomic radius increases.
- The elements become increasingly electropositive on descending the group.
external image enegchart.gif external image ieschart.gif

Reactivity
-The Group II elements are all very reactive, more so than the elements in groups III-VII, but not as reactive as the Group I elements. This is due to the fact that the outer electrons are easier to remove, since there are only two.



Occurrence
-These elements can all be found within the crust of the Earth. However, since they are so highly reactive they are not found in elemental form, but as components of compounds that make up rocks and minerals.

Uses
-Beryllium can be used in the manufacturing of tools so that the tools do not produce sparks.
Magnesium is used in parts for cars and airplanes due to its strength and durability. Magnesium also plays a vital role in metabolism and in muscle functions. Calcium is used in numerous food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and is found primarily in the structural minerals composing bones and teeth. Strontium is often used to make fireworks because when burnt, it produces an intense red flame. Barium is used as a lubricant in drilling equipment and to help with stomach problems.

Discovery




QUESTIONS
1) How many valence electrons do the group II elements have?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 8
2) Which of the following properties does not fit all of the Alkaline Earth Metals?
a. ductile
b. transparent
c. metallic
d. malleable
3) Which element is used in the manufacturing of fireworks?
a. Barium
b. Strontium
c. Beryllium
d. Calcium
4) Which elements has the highest electronegativity?
a. Barium
b. Strontium
c. Beryllium
d. Calcium
5) Which of the following is true?
a. All of the Alkaline Earth Metals are found in the Earth's crust.
b. The group II elements are not found in the crust in their pure forms.
c. The group II elements are less reactive than the group II elements.
d. All of the above




Works Cited

"Atomic and Physical Properties of Periodic Table Group 2." Atomic and Physical Properties of Periodic Table Group 2. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/properties.html>.
ChemPics. "Group 2 Reactions with Water - Periodic Properties." YouTube. YouTube, 16 Oct. 2009. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2ZPrg9IVEo>.
"Learners' Chemistry: Periodic Discussion and General Characteristics of Alkaline Earth Metals." Learners' Chemistry: Periodic Discussion and General Characteristics of Alkaline Earth Metals. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://chem-guide.blogspot.com/2010/04/periodic-discussion-and-general_02.html>.
Malley, Kiera. "Alkaline-Earth Metals- Fresh Prince of Bel Air Theme." YouTube. YouTube, 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0DKPhrSdQ0>.
"Periodic Properties of TheƂ Elements." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/a/periodictrends.htm>.
Tilden, Eric. "Uses of Alkaline Earth Metals." EHow. Demand Media, 15 July 2009. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_5183723_uses-alkaline-earth-metals.html>.
"Visual Elements: Group 2 - The Alkaline Earth Metals." Visual Elements: Group 2 - The Alkaline Earth Metals. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/data/intro_groupii_data.html>.
Zumdahl, Steven , and Susan Zumdahl . Chemistry . Belmont: Print.